Achievements, for the most part, can only be gained in single-player Ironman games, on normal or higher difficulty, with historical nations started at 11 November 1444. Since patch 1.30 limited country forming (aka endgame tags) must also be active. Some achievements will require that you play as a released nation. Some achievements can also be earned while playing a custom nation. Four do not require the 1444 start date. All of this is noted in the table.
Easiest as Austria, playing a normal emperor game, revoking the privilegia and then either forming the holy roman empire and continuing to play; or saving before forming, and then doing Alt+F4 once the achievement has been fulfilled, thereby continuing the campaign with revoke. Can easily be combined with most of the HRE- and Austria- centric achievements.
The RED FILES timeline is coded for educators, teachers and students according to the following: Secret Victories of the KGBSoviet Sports WarsSecret Soviet Moon MissionSoviet Propaganda Machine1857 Konstantin Tsiolkovsky born near Riazan, Russia1865 Jules Verne publishes From the Earth to the Moon1869 Dmitri Mendeleev creates Periodic Table of the Elements187022 April, Vladimir Il'cih Ul'ianov (Lenin) born.1879 21 December, Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Stalin) born in Gori, Georgia1881 Terrorists assassinate Tsar Aleksander II. Pogroms sweep Russia as Jews blamed; start massive refugee movement to USA1881 Nikolai Kibalich writes about space flight by jet propulsion while in Sts. Peter & Paul Fortress awaiting execution for plotting to kill the Tsar1883 Tsiolkovsky writes Free Space on use of jet propulsion in vacuum of space1895 Tsiolkovsky write Dream of the Earth and Sky describes earth satellites in 200hundred mile up orbits inhabited by 'sky-dwellers'1896 Henri Becquerel 'discovers' radioactivity in Paris.1896 Athens First modern Olympic Games1898 Minsk Russian Social Democratic Workers Party Founded1900-1905 Munich, London, Geneva Lenin edits, writes for and fights for control of underground party newspaper, Iskra (The Spark)1900 Paris Second modern Olympic Games1903 Igor Kurchatov director USSR atomic research born1903 Tsiolkovsky writes "Exploring Space by Reactive [Rocket] Devices" virtual handbook on practical rocketry, including propellants, rocket shape, rocket nozzle for focusing force" (later edition mention atomic and solar energy) 1903 Brussels-London Russian Social Democratic Workers Party splits into Bolshevik and Menshevik factions.1904 St. Louis III Olympic Games1905 First Russian revolution. Scientists join movement for basic freedoms1905 Albert Einstein write Theory of Relativity. E=Mc2. 1906 Sergei Korolev born in Zhitomir, Ukraine1908 London IV Olympic Games1911 Vladimir Vernadsky, Russian Scientists, prompts expedition to find and to chart deposits of Russian radioactive materials.1912 Pravda (Truth) Bolshevik Party Newspaper founded in St.Petersburg. Boris Yeltsin orders Pravda fall 1991. It resumes publication shortly but after 1993 no longer is paper of the Communist Party.1908 Stockholm V Olympic Games1914 Start of First World War1917 February, revolution. Tsar abdicates. Revolution brings liberal democrats to power.1917 3 April, Lenin returns from exile in Switzerland on "sealed train" provided by German government.1917 October, revolution. Bolsheviks come to power.1917 Bolsheviks organize Council of People's Commissars to Govern Russia. Lenin elected Chairman 9 November, Bolsheviks suppress Liberal and right-wing newspapers. Pravda publishes Tsarist secret Treaties.1917December, Cheka created. Forerunner of NKVD, KGB1918 13 April. Bolshevik (and former Menshevik) leader Leon Trotsky appointed Commissar of War as civil war starts full force.1918 4 May, Russia signs Armistice with Germany1918 28 June, Bolshevik Government nationalizes large industry1918 16 July, Bolsheviks execute ex-Tsar and family in Ekaterinburg to prevent them from being rescued and becoming propaganda symbols for anti-Bolshevik forces. News suppressed.1918 2 August, American and British Troops occupy Archangel1918 14 August, British troop land in Baku1918 14 October, Traditional Moscow-Petrograd Football (soccer) Game revived.1919 15 April, Cheka opens labor camps, GULAG for enemies of Bolshevik government1919 October, Fearing spread of disease 'Bolshevism' Allies impose economic coastal blockade in attempt to isolate and to smother Soviet Russia1920 January, Allies lift economic coastal blockade because they see it is ineffective.1920 Antwerp VII Olympic Games (No Soviet Russia participation)1921 23 July, Herbert Hoover, Chairman of the American Relief Agency offers to feed starving Russian people. Lenin's government accepts.1922 3 April, Stalin becomes general secretary of the Communist Party1922 26 May, Lenin suffers first paralytic Stroke.1922 24 December, Lenin writes last testament warns against rude Stalin getting too much power. Document suppressed.1923 9 March, Lenin suffers third stroke. No longer can speak.1923 First Physical Culture Day1924 21 January, Lenin dies1924 31 January, Constitution of Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ratified.1924 Great Britain, Italy, France, Sweden recognize USSR1924 Paris VIII Olympic Games (No Soviet Union participation)1926 November, riot in Odessa at Moscow-Odessa Football (soccer) Game1927 Stalin consolidates hold on Communist Party. Outfights Trotsky, expels many Trotsky followers from Party.1928-1932 First Five Year Plan1928 Dinamo Stadium Built in Moscow1928 August, First Spartakiad (Soviet style Olympic-type multi-sports competition)1928-1932 Nikolai Rynin writes a nine volume Russian encyclopedia of space travel1928 Sergei Korolev designs glider enters in nationwide competition1929 1 October, Stalin introduces first Five Year Plan of Economic Development1929 Forced Collectivization of Agriculture1929 Stalin celebrates consolidation of power; orders forced collectivization1929 Communist Party of the United States founded1929 29 October, Wall Street Crashes. Depression begins.1930 Group for Studying Reaction Propulsion (GIRD) lead by Friedrikh Tsander begins working on OR-1 liquid fueled rocket engine. Korolev devotes all spare time to project.1931 Pavlik Morozov denounces father.1931 First Physical Culture Day Parade in Red Square1932 Pavlik Morozov and his brother murdered. Show trial in their village.1932 Pavlik Morozov legend born of young boy denouncing father for hoard grain.1932 23 April, Central Committee abolishes all artists and writers groups. Subsequently new Union of Writers formed.1932 Los Angles X Olympic Games1933 17 August, GIRD-09 successfully launched USSR first liquid-fueled rocket1933 16 November, United States and USSR establish diplomatic relations.1934 8 June, Soviet government issues law on "Betrayal of Motherland" death penalty obligatory for treason; law holds family members collectively responsible for violations of law.1934 Tsiolkovsky finishes ten-year effort to write Space Rocket Trains math based treatise on techniques for designing multi-staged rockets1934 Julius Rosenberg enters City College of New York; attracted to vibrant radical politics movement.1934 1 December, Sergei Kirov, popular Communist leader of Leningrad murdered. Stalin suspected of organizing murder which sets off Great Purges and Great Terror (hence the expression "the great 1937 terror began 1 December, 1934)1935 Lona Cohen joins U.S. Communist Party; Morris Cohen joins Communist party works as party organizer in the Bronx1935-1938 Great Purge, Purge Trials, Great Terror. GULAG swells.1936 21 June, formation All-Union Committee on Physical Culture and Sports1936 19-24 August, first "show trial" of Stalinist purges.1936-1939 Civil War in Spain; USSR backs republic, USA neutral; Abraham Lincoln Brigade of Volunteers fights for Republic. Morris Cohen wounded. . NKVD agents recruit Cohen. 1936 Berlin XI Olympic Games (Soviet Union Absent)1937 27 June, NKVD agents take Sergei Korolev. 10 year sentence to Gulag in Kolyma1937 July, Lona meets Morris Cohen at Madison Square Garden anti-fascist rally1938 February, Morris Cohen goes to NKVD school outside Barcelona. Learns tradecraft1938 Enrico Fermi wins Nobel Prize for developments in Nuclear physics.1939 23 August, Secret Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression pact signed.1939 Start of World War II in Europe. Nazi Germany invades Poland1939 Albert Einstein writes letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt warning that Nazi Germany is building an Atomic Bomb - lays groundwork for Manhattan Project1939 Morris Cohen works as a guard at USSR Pavilion World's Fair, Queens NY. Starts work at Amtorg (Soviet Trading Corporation)
1940 Igor Kurchatov reports on nuclear chain reactions at Academy of Sciences, Moscow1940 September, Korolev moved to Tupolev sharashka on Radio Street, Moscow1941 22 June, Nazi Germany invades USSR1941 24 June, President Roosevelt pledges US aid to Soviet Union.1941 Klaus Fuchs offers to spy for the USSR; his case officer - Aleksander Feklisov1941 7 December, Japanese bomb Pearl Harbor US joins war.1941-42 NKVD chief Lavrenty Beria reviews captured information Nazi are planning atomic bomb.1942 Lona Cohen works in war plants; acts as clandestine courier.1942 USSR and Great Britain sign 20 year mutual assistance treaty.1942 August. Manhattan Project authorized. British agents inform Moscow of joint US-British project. Stalin informed. Operation ENORMOUS begins.1942 September, Ted Hall enters Harvard. Hall joins John Reed Society (named for American Communist and reporter buried by the Kremlin wall). Hall breezes through physics curriculum1942 September, Battle of Stalingrad.starts. Turning point in ground war.1942 December, Fermi conducts First Controlled Nuclear Chain Reaction in Squash Court at University of Chicago.1943 Spymaster Feklisov starts meeting Julius Rosenberg.1943 Venona Project starts trying to crack Soviet code (succeed by late 1948)1943 October, Harvard Professor recommends 18-year-old whiz kid Hall for Manhattan Project.1943 28 November-1 December, Stalin, Roosevelt, Churchill summit in Tehran, Iran1944 January, Hall arrives at Los Alamos. Issued security clearances without problem by War Department.1944 June, Korolev and entire Tupolev sharashka design crew freed; charges officially expunged. 1944 July, David Greenglass selected to work as technician at Los Alamos.1944 13 July, Winston Churchill ask Stalin's help investigating German rockets bombarding London. Stalin promises to personally have it investigated.1944 5 August, Soviet Rocket experts with British colleagues in occupied Germany/Poland investigate partially destroyed German rockets.1944 9-20 October, Moscow. Churchill meets with Stalin. Divide Europe into hypothetical spheres of influence. Agree to pursue joint policy in Yugoslavia..1944 Nov-Dec?? Hall gives Harvard College roommate Los Alamos secret document for transmission to Moscow.1945 Winter - Lona Cohen makes courier run for ENORMOUS1945 4-11 February, "Big Three" Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin meet at Yalta set up occupation zones in Germany, agree to include non-Communists in governments of Poland and Yugoslavia. Discuss post-war spheres of influence.1945 5 March, Kurchatov reads ENORMOUS raw data on 'implosion' technique for A-bomb detonation1945 March-April, Lona Cohen meets ENORMOUS spymaster Anatoly Yatskov and backup Aleksandr Feklisov in NYC coffeeshop.1945 April, Russian experts systematic effort to collect German V-2 hardware, blueprints, engineers and technicians. Salvage destroyed parts from garbage.1945 April, publication of photographs of Buchenwald Concentration Camp in Life Magazine said to have profound impact on Los Alamos scientists.1945 April-May, Lona Cohen travels to meet Ted Hall on campus of University of New Mexico. Hides documents on A-bomb in Kleenex Box takes them back on train to ENORMOUS agents in NYC.1945 12 April, President Roosevelt dies. Vice-President Harry S. Truman sworn in as President. 1945 summer Korolev commissioned colonel in Red Army; flies to Germany to gather information and parts of Nazi Wernher von Braun's V-2 rocket program1945 9 May, War Against Germany Ends. Victory Day Declared.1945 13 May, Soviet national football (soccer) championship league resumes after war.1945 June, Klaus Fuchs transmits detailed report on Los Alamos developments1945 June, ENORMOUS courier Harry Gold meets David Greenglass in Albuquerque, N.M.1945 16 July, World's First Atomic Bomb Test, "Trinity" Alamogordo, New Mexico19454 July, Potsdam summit. President Truman tells Stalin, "We had a new weapon of unusual destructive force." Stalin nods head says, "Thank you."1945 August, U.S. drops "Fat Boy" Atomic Bomb on Hiroshima, Japan 8 August, Soviet Union declares war on Japan.19459 August, U.S. drops "Thin Man" Atomic Bomb on Nagasaki, Japan 14 August, Japan agrees to unconditional surrender.1945 20 August, Stalin orders Beria to chair a Special Committee under the Defense Committee to supervise all work on the use of atomic energy of uranium194523 August, Soviet consul in Tokyo inspects Hiroshima bomb damage1945 September, David Greenglass passes drawing Atomic Bomb lense designs to Julius Rosenberg for handing over to ENORMOUS agent.1945 6 November, First Public Mention of Soviet Atomic Program in Bolshevik Revolution Anniversary Speech by Stalin's lieutenant V. Molotov, "...we will achieve prosperity in our country. We will have atomic energy too, and much else!"194525 January, Stalin summons Kurchatov orders him "Build the bomb on a Russian Scale."1946 February, Cohens go inactive "cold storage" Morris enrolls in Columbia University Teachers College on G.I. Bill1946February, Canadian-style hockey rink set up in Moscow.1946 5 March, Winston Churchill makes "IRON CURTAIN Speech1946 25 December, Kurchatov supervises Physical-1 nuclear pile successful chain reaction.1947 Lona meets new Soviet agent at Bronx zoo. Returns to work as courier.1947 17 February, U.S. starts anti-Communist radio broadcasts into USSR CIA sponsored effort originally called "Radio Liberation from Communism/Bolshevism" Becomes Radio Liberty.1947 14 April, Stalin summons Korolev to meeting commission planning rocket development. Korolev reports time for Stalin ordered reworking V-2 Nazi rocket past; time for systematic development Soviet ICBM1948 February, Klaus Fuchs meets Feklisov in London1948 London XIV Summer Olympics resume after WWII (Soviet Union sends observers)1948 lateVenona Project cracks enough Soviet code to start reading words.1948 18 June, Soviets begin economic blockade of Westerns zones of Berlin1948 21 June, US, Britain, France begin Berlin airlift1948 July, CIA Director memo "the earliest date by which it is remotely possible that the USSR May, have completed its first atomic bomb is mid-1950...more probable date mid-19531949 29 August, USSR tests its first atomic bomb at special site in Kazakhstan 1949 September, US 'sniffer planes'detect unusual radiation1949 23 September, President Truman announces "We have evidence that within recent weeks an Atomic explosion occurred in the USSR."1949 18 October, Second Soviet atomic test1949 Mao proclaims Communist victory in China; People's Republic of China proclaimed1950 21 January, Alger Hiss convicted of perjury for denying he passed secret documents to Communist agent .1950 22 January, Stalin in meeting with Mao asks PRC to set up a joint global network of espionage agents among Chinese living abroad.1950 2 February, Klaus Fuchs arrested in Britain; confesses to atomic spying.1950 9 February, Senator Joseph McCarthy (R-Wisc) says he has list of 205 members of the Communist party in the State Dept.1950 February, spy hunt, commie hunt mania envelopes FBI and nation1950 March, Cohens receive message to lay low and prepare to defect1950 April, Stalin backs North Korean invasion of South Korea1950 22 May, Fuch courier, Harry Gold confesses; later names David Greenglass as a contact.1950 15 June, Greenglass names his brother-in-law Julius Rosenberg as the man who recruited him to spy for the Soviet Union.1950 16 June, FBI interviews Rosenberg for the first time. Member of Rosenberg electronic spy ring, Joel Barr disappears in Paris (goes to Czechoslovkia, later settles in Soviet Union)1950 25 June, North Korean army, equipped by Soviet Union crosses 38th parallel; invasion marks start of Korean war.1950 end of June, Cohens ordered to leave the country; they make up a 'cover' story about moving to California - trek across ten or more countries arrive in Moscow November, 1950.1951 31 January, Federal Grand Jury indites Rosenbergs, David Greenglass.1951 6 March, Rosenberg trial begins end 29 March, Guilty1951 5 April, Judge Kaufman imposes death sentence on Rosenbergs; appeals follow.1951 Cohens go to tradecraft school in Poland 1952 16 January, Soviet government orders foreign diplomats and journalists restricted to staying within 25 miles of Kremlin; bars them from 22 cities.1952 Helsinki XV Summer Olympic Games Soviet Union Participates for First Time1952 October, 19th CP congress drops term "Bolshevik" from party title.1953 5 March, Stalin dies. Georgii Malenkov succeeds him.1953 19 June, Rosenbergs executed at Sing Sing Prison.1953 Lavrenty Beria, secret police and atomic bomb project chief loses Kremlin power struggle; arrested; found guilty of crimes against USSR shot 23 December.1953 13 September, Nikita Khrushchev takes over as CPSU leader.1954 Korolev authorized to construct R-7 rocket for ICBM duty.1954 Soviet Union defeats Canada 7-2 in World Hockey Championships1951-57 Cohen perform unspecified tasks for KGB behind Iron Curtain and elsewhere (Japan, Hong Kong) including training "illegal" in how to behave like Americans.1955 14 May, Warsaw Pact formed (USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania)1956 14-25 February, 20th Congress CPSU in secret speech Khrushchev reports & condemns excesses of Stalin's rule.1956 Moscow First Artificial hockey rink built.1956 28 March, Pravda denounces abuses of power by Stalin during his latter years.1956 30 June, Lenin's Last Testament (1924) published for first time.1956 Melbourne XVI Olympic Games1956 23 October, Hungarians demonstrate against Soviet troops in their country and puppet Soviet Hungarian government. Start of Hungarian revolt. Radio Free Europe encourages uprising. Soviets eventually send in tanks and troops in November.1957? Cohens settle in North London suburb as Australian couple Peter and Helen Kroger.1957 19 April, Khrushchev government officially rehabilitates Korolev (of Stalin era) "crimes"1957 21 August, Soviet Union successfully launches world's first ICBM - Korolev's R-7 rocket with dummy warhead goes from Baykonur to Kamchatka 4,000 miles.1957 US, Canada boycott World Hockey Championships in Moscow to protest Soviet invasion of Hungary.1957 4 October, SPUTNIK-1 launched1957 6 October, Pravda banner headline "World's First Artificial Earth Satellite-Created in Soviet Nation."1957 3 November, SPUTNIK-2 ORBITS Earth with dog Laika aboard.1958 27 January, US USSR agree to expand cultural, educational, and scientific exchanges.1958 23 October, Nobel Prize for Literature awarded to Boris Pasternak for novel Dr.Zhivago. Pasternak forced to renounce prize. Dr.Zhivago not published in USSR until 1989.1958 15 May, 1.3ton SPUTNIK-3 ORBITS Earth full of science equipment. Misses discovering Van Allen radiation belt as tape recorder fails.1958 29 July, President Eisenhower signs law creating NASA, National Aeronautics and Space Administration.1959 24 July, "Kitchen Debate" US Vice President Richard M. Nixon and Khrushchev at US Exhibition, Sokolniki Park, Moscow.1959 12 September, Korolev launches LUNA-2 impacts on MOON. First spacecraft to reach another celestial body.1959 15-27 Khrushchev tours US, visits President Eisenhower.1959 4 October, LUNA-3 launched photographs far (dark) side of Moon. First images of far side of moon in human history.1960 19 August, Vostok capsule launched with 2 dogs BELKA and STRELKA and successfully returned to earth with dogs alive. First MAMMALS, First living Creature to SURVIVE in SPACE and RETURN TO EARTH.1960 24 October, R-16 Rocket Explosion Disaster 165 killed General Nedelin, head of Soviet Strategic Rocket Forces perishes. COVERED UP1960 Rome XVII Olympic Games1961 7 January, Kroger-Cohen arrested for links with their 'cultural' pupil Konon Molody code name Gordon Lonsdale.1961 9 March, Vostok capsule with dog Chernushka and human dummy successfully launched and recovered after orbiting earth.1961 12 April, Cosmonaut Yuri Gagrin launched into space make one orbit of earth and lands successfully near Volga river town, Engels. FIRST MAN IN SPACE1961 5 May, Astronaut Alan Shepard successfully completes sub-orbital space flight. FIRST AMERICAN in space.1961 6 August, Vostok-2 with Cosmonaut Gherman Titov successfully orbits earth 17 times 25 hour in Space - New Longevity Record.1962 20 February, Mercury-6 with Astronaut John Glenn aboard orbits earth 3 times. FIRST AMERICAN TO ORBIT EARTH.1962 24 September, Kremlin orders Korolev to test N-1 rocket to power man to moon by 1965.1962 22 - 27 October, Cuban Missile Crisis. President Kennedy announces Soviets spotted building missile bases in Cuba. 1963 7 January, Pravda criticizes Communists in China of dogmatic, devisive views.1963 19 June, Vostok-6 with Cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova aboard successfully orbits earth 48 times. FIRST WOMAN IN SPACE.1963 20 June, US-USSR agree to HOT LINE linking White House & Kremlin.1964 2 March, CPSU announces renewed campaign to eliminate religion from Soviet life.1964 Tokyo XVIII Olympic Games1964 14 October, Khrushchev ousted from Kremlin. L.Brezhenev and A. Kosygin takeover.1965 12 March, Voskhod-2 Alexei Leonov performs first "Space Walk".1966 14 January, Korolev dies in Kremlin Hospital. Identity revealed next day.1966 14 February, Two Soviet writers (Sinavsky, Daniel) sentenced to hard labor for publishing "anti-Soviet" works abroad. Works are read on Radio Liberty.1968 December, Apollo-8 commanded by Frank Borman circles Moon.1968 Summer Liberalization programs of reform Communists, "Prague Spring" raise tensions with increasingly conservative Moscow. Moscow continues prosecuting non-conformist writers for anti-Soviet activities.1968 Mexico City XIX Olympic Games1968 August, Soviet tanks & troops invades Czechoslovakia to undo "Socialism with a Human Face" reformist brand of Communism.1968 26 September, Pravda explains ideological reasons for Czech invasion, "world socialism is indivisible, and its defense is the common cause of all Communists." Kremlin will not allow communism, as it defines it, to be rolled back. "Brezhnev Doctrine."1969 7 July, N-1 rocket explodes during test. Takes 2 years to rebuild launch pad.1969 20 July, Neil Armstrong from Apollo-11 is FIRST MAN ON THE MOON. Buzz Aldrin Plants U.S. Flag on Moon.1972 2 September, Soviet vs Canadian Professional Hockey Series begins in Montreal. Soviets win first game 7-3.1972 Munich XX Olympic Games - Soviets Triumph. Olga Korbut captures world attention1974 13 February, Soviet government deports writer Alexander Solzhenitsyn, strips him of Soviet citizenship for books on Stalinism.1974 2 June, Andrei Sakharov, "father of Soviet H-Bomb" begins hunger strike in support of amnesty for Soviet political prisoners. 1975 17-19 July, USSR & USA conduct joint space activities Apollo & Soyuz spacecraft link up.1975 9 October, Andrei Sakharov awarded Noble Peace Prize for human rights and civil rights work.1976 Montreal XXI Olympic Games.1977 June, L. Brezhnev replaces as N.Podgorny as nominal head of state (chairman of the presidium) First Soviet leader to hold both post of general secretary and president at same time.1979 27 December, Soviet government under Brezhnev's leadership sends invasion army into Afghanistan to defend socialism there.///Troops withdrawn 15 May, 1988.1980 20 January, President J. Carter calls Soviet invasion of Afghanistan "most serious threat to peace since the Second World War."1980 22 January, Andrei Sakharov exiled to closed city Gorky for public opposition to Soviet policies.1980 April, US announces it will boycott Moscow Olympics1980 Moscow 19 July, XXII Summer Olympic Games. Brezhnev opens games United States, West Germany and other countries boycott to protest Soviet invasion of Afghanistan1982 10 November, L. Brezhev dies of heart attack; emergency session of Central Committee selects former KGB head I.Andropov to be general secretary of the CPSU.1983 1 September, Soviet Fighter planes shoot down Korean Airlines Flight 007 after it strays off course and overflies military base. 269 dead. Pravda admits fact of downing only on 6 September.1984 9 February, I.Andropov dies of acute kidney problems; K.Chernenko becomes general secretary of CPSU on 13 Feb.1984 Los Angeles XXIII Summer Olympic Games. Soviet Union cites concerns over 'inadequate security' as reason for boycott - really payback for US boycott of 1980 Moscow games.1985 10 March, K.Chernenko dies; next day Mikhail Gorbachev announced as the choice for new general secretary of the CPSU.1985 19-21 Gorbachev-Reagan summit meeting in Geneva.1985 24 December, Boris Yeltsin named first secretary of Moscow City CP1986 February, Gorbachev announces policy of Glasnost (openness).1986 6 March, On last day of 27th Congress CPSU Gorbachev declares all Soviet citizens must be prepared for "radical transformations in all spheres of Soviet life."1986 26 April, Accident at Chernobyl Atomic Energy Station. Moscow delays warning its people and world of radiation dangers.1986 19 December, Gorbachev calls Andrei Sakharov on phone to inform him he is free to leave exile in Gorky.1987 May, Soviet government stops jamming American radio broadcasts.1987 21 October, B.Yeltsin criticizes Gorbachev for going to slow in reforms. Within weeks he is dismissed from his party post.1988 15 May, Soviet troops start withdrawing from Afghanistan.1988 XXIV Seoul Korea Olympic Games1989 9 November, Berlin Wall symbol of Cold War torn down.1990 4 February, hundreds of thousands demonstrate on Moscow streets for democracy and against CP monopoly on power.1990 12 July, Congress CPSU B.Yeltsin resigns and walks out.1990 20 December, In Speech to Congress of Peoples Deputies Foreign Minister Eduard Shervernadze warns of approaching dictatorship and resigns his post.1991 January, Soviet troops seize buildings kill pro-Independence activists in Vilnius Lithuania.1991 12 June, Yeltsin wins first direct election of Russian President with almost 60% of vote.1991 19 August, Hard line coup against Gorbachev. Yeltsin calls for a General Strike. Coup collapses on 21 August. Crowds pull down Dzerzhinsky statue in front of Lubyanka. Yeltsin suspends publication of Pravda. Gorbachev resigns as general secretary CPSU.1991 6 November, Yeltsin bans CP in Russia.1991 8 December, Yeltsin and leaders Ukraine, Belarus agree to form Commonwealth of Independent States.1991 25 December. Gorbachev resigns as President of USSR. Soviet Union formally ceases to exist.Investigative Assets Timeline Lesson Zone Photos Vocabulary Insights Recommended Reading 2b1af7f3a8