Inorganic Chemistry Miessler Tarr Pdf 120
CLICK HERE >> https://urlgoal.com/2teJgi
In this study, Science and Technology, studied in 4th-8thgrades of elementary school, and Chemistry course books, studied in the 9th-12th grades of high school, which are redesigned according to the new curriculum are researched. In this research inorganic and organic chemistry concepts are emphasized, the presence and the content of this concepts are researched. Especially at the 8th grade course book, in the unit named \"Structure of Matter and Properties\"; the samples related with inorganic and organic compounds are teached. In this context after the research, Organic and Inorganic Chemistry definitions are made and differentiated in the course book of 8th grade, later on for these definitions 8th grade is suggested as the most proper grade. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Organic chemistry term, we use today, means the chemistry of carbon compounds as carbon atom can be found in all organic substances. But compounds like carbon dioxide, sodium carbonate, potassium cyanide which are including carbon atoms are accepted as inorganic so this definition is not completely true, the reason for the acceptance of this definition is that they all include carbon. (Fessenden and Fessenden, 2001; Solomons and Fryhle, 2002; Miessler and Tarr, 2002).
Organic chemistry is defined as the chemistry of compounds with hydrocarbon and their derivatives; and inorganic chemistry is in broader sense described as everything that is outside of these compounds and their derivatives. Chemical substances displays organic and inorganic characteristics and gain evident qualities. Organic compounds are formed through covalent bond while most of the inorganic compounds are formed through ionic bond but there are also a small number of inorganic compounds being in covalent conformation. (Fessenden and Fessenden, 2001; Miessler ve Tarr, 2002).
When it is taken into account that students meet with the Chemistry firstly in Science and Technology courses of 4th grade with the unit of \"Introduction to the Matter\"; we see that they also start to learn many basic Chemistry concepts beginning from that class. In this study elementary school 4th-8th grade Science and Technology course book and high school 9th-12th grade Chemistry course books are analyzed, and organic and inorganic chemistry concepts are researched from the aspects of presence and content. In order for the distinction of inorganic and organic concepts, most suitable class and unit are tried to be determined.
In this study elementary school 4th (Tung et al., 2009d), 5th (Yilmaz et al.,2009), 6th (Tung et al., 2009a), 7th (Tung et al., 2009b), 8th (Tung et al., 2009c) grades Science and Technology course book and 9th (Dursun et al., 2009a), 10th (Dursun et al., 2009b), 11th (Kizildag et al., 2009), 12th (Erturk and Karahan, 2009) grade Chemistry course books of 2009-2010 education years are researched. These course books are evaluated according to the distribution of organic and inorganic chemistry subjects in the class curriculums.
3.Organic and Inorganic Chemistry concepts should be given together. This is because chemical compounds are classified as organic and inorganic. This definition is very important for the Chemistry and these two kinds of compound behaviors are very different from each other. While giving adequate knowledge of organic chemistry, at the same time inorganic chemistry knowledge should be given adequately, and the given information should be in a system under the titles of chemistry. At the time of study it is researched whether there is a system like that or not.
4.In the course books of elementary school and high school no distinction is made about inorganic and organic compounds/chemistry until 9th grade curriculum. But 9th grade is late for this distinction; therefore most suitable grade and unit is tried to be found.
The chemistry curriculum of 9th grade contains historical development of chemistry, basic laws of chemistry (the law of conservation of mass, law of definite proportions, law of multiple proportions, law of combining volumes), chemical bond concept, (ionic and covalent bonds) the definition of ionic and covalent compounds and the formation of them, the difference between organic and inorganic compounds, entrance to the organic compounds (just the formulas of hydrocarbons, alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, alcohol, carboxylic acid, carbohydrate, lipid, soap, detergent are given.), chemical changes (chemical reactions and reaction types), polymerization and hydrolysis, mixtures, solutions, solubility, cleaning matter, chemical phenomenon in biological systems (photosynthesis, respiration, digestion) and environment chemistry subjects.
In this study elementary school 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th grades Science and Technology course book and 9th, 10th, 11th, 12th grade Chemistry course books of 2009-2010 education years are researched. These course books are evaluated according to the distribution of organic and inorganic chemistry subjects in the class curriculums. Evaluations results are shown below. Tables are explained and some suggestions are made.
Also in 7th grade chemistry subjects are explained mainly by inorganic examples; at page 173-175 in the unit of \"Structure of the Matter and Properties\" besides the inorganic examples of \"Compounds and Formulas\", an organic
In 9th grade Chemistry course book at page 80-92 after the explanation of ionic and covalent bonds and the types of compounds in the \"Compounds\" unit, there is information about the differentiation of organic and inorganic compounds within the part of \"Organic Compounds\". Only hydrocarbon, alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, alcohol, carboxylic acids, carbonhydrate, lipid, soap and detergent structures are given as formulas, they are not presented with detailed concept explanation. Yet, the extended knowledge studied in the 12th grade should have been given in the curriculum of 9th grade. This is because following parts of the curriculum include the unit of \"Chemical Changes\" and at page 102-107, 111 the combustion of some hydrocarbons, at page 124-130 polymerization and hydrolysis reactions, at page 190-196 soap and detergents, at page 210-212 dyes, at page 216-223 photosynthesis, respiration and digestion (biochemical reactions) take place. That means organic reactions given after the page 102 require expansive knowledge of organic chemistry. And for the students studying biology besides chemistry many biochemical reactions exist in the coming years. (Table 4.2)
The units of 10th grade organic and inorganic examples are presented together; especially in the unit \"Interaction between Chemical Species\" organic reactions are used at page 125, 130-132, 152-161; in the unit \"States of matter\" organic molecules are used at pages 177, 194, 195, 198, 202, 203, 205, 208, 209, 213, 216, 217, 223; in the unit \"Mixtures\" organic molecules are found at page 250-252, 263-269, 279, 282-285, 293, 294. These subjects require expansive chemistry knowledge. (Table 4.3)
12th grade chemistry curriculum following \"Chemical Bonds\" unit all the units are made up of organic chemistry subjects. Organic chemistry subjects are being presented much extended. About hydrocarbons, alcohol, ether, aldehydes and ketons, carboxylic acids, and esters, carbohydrates, aliphatic ammoniac compounds and aromatic compounds form the curriculum. Table 4.5 is in the form of distribution of inorganic subjects in the organic subjects. As shown above a detailed chemistry curriculum exists in last class of high school. This class is very late. Because many organic based concepts, subjects and processes have been taught to the students till this time.
All the subjects in the Elementary school Science and Technology course book and high school Chemistry course book except 12th grade are taught through inorganic examples and organic examples exist very few. These examples should be increased and students should learn chemistry through organic and inorganic examples and in order to make it possible the differentiation of organic and inorganic chemistry should be done. The most suitable class for this differentiation is 8th grade and the most suitable subject is \"Structure of the Matter and Properties\" This is because in this unit periodic table, classification of elements, ionic and covalent bonds are explained in detail. Especially the knowledge that mostly organic compounds (few of them inorganic) are formed with covalent bonds 153554b96e